Before each of the two world wars, there seems to have been an age of fundamentalism. Today, again, we seem to have entered into an age of fundamentalism: The self-proclaimed “islamic” state that is anything but; the Maduro puppet regime in Venezuela that is willfully ignoring reality; Putin’s conquest by military force of parts of Ukraine and sticking to his guns as the proverbial ship is sinking; Christian fundamentalism in USA; Moslem in Pakistan and elsewhere; Jewish in Israel; and so on. Hardened positions, and in some of these cases an outright refusal to accept progress.
The core of fundamentalism is this ideological refusal to embrace progress. It is clear that the opposite of “progressive” is “fundamentalist”. The strategy of the fundamentalists is to portray the progressive as a small minority. In reality, of course, all except the fundamentalists themselves are progressive, because it is in the very nature of man to seek progress.
Why does fundamentalism appear? I don’t have the answer, but I would start looking into the process of progress. Some people are afraid of change, notably those with certain personalities, I will not say “disorder” but just certain types of personalities. They hold on to what they see as status quo, and insist that others do the same, or they don’t feel comfortable. Perhaps that is the origin, I don’t know, I’m just speculating now.
What can we do to prevent fundamentalism from getting destructive again, or even more destructive? This is an even better question that I have even less of an answer to, since it depends on the answer to the previous question. All I can say is that it is crucial to understand fundamentalism and to deal with it in an appropriate manner. In time.